Behavioural Economics is a famous field of the behavioural finance that suggests the theories based on psychology (Psychology Finance or Behavioural Finance) in order to explain the concept of Stock market anomalies which includes extreme rise and fall in the prices of stock market. Behavioral finance suggests that the structure of the information and characteristics of participants of the market plays an important role in decision making of the investors as well as the overall outcome of the market.BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND INVESTORS:
Behavioral Economics is more inclined towards the investors and their decision making for the following reasons:
1. An individual who is capable of identifying the flaws in his behaviour is capable of optimizing his decisions and he is wise enough to learn from his mistakes.
2. Anomalies are extremely important part of the active management . Individuals, who believe in the fact that the markets are rational and the prices are inclusive of all type of information available, are capable of relying on the passive management.PSYCHOLOGY FINANCE / THE BRAIN AND YOU!
The brain and its composition have been through a lot of evolution till date. The current composition is originated from the old times of the Stone Age when the basic needs were to hunt for survival. The needs of that time were different from the modern age. The current composition and its structure are not fit for modern age.
According to the Cerebral Research, there are three centres inside the brain. All these center are developed and interact in a very different way.
- Limbic System – Deals With The Emotions.
- Cerebral Cortex – Cerebral Cortex – Deals With Logics.
- Recumbent Part – Deals With Bodily Functions.
Limbic System is responsible for all types of emotions including excitement as well as fear. The limbic happens to be the oldest part. The emotions were part of the life before logic came in. This part of the brain works very quickly.
Cerebral Cortex is basically responsible for all the learning, planning, logical thinking, calculating and making decisions. Cortex works slowly and takes time to make a decision.
These two parts of the brain plays a very important role in the decision making. Both of the work in a very different way but they do function together.
Cortex and Limbic together form two types of systems. Behavioural patterns are basically controlled by these two systems:
- Loss Prevention
- Pursuit of Reward
According to an old and exaggerated term used in the Stock Market. The entire market moves between the Fear and Greed which are two extreme ends of the lost prevention and pursuit of reward.
Money, brain and profit:
In order to make best decisions that is free from any type of emotions for the financial investment one need to stay rational. There is an economist deep inside each and every individual. The economist in you makes you earn your bread and butter by working. However, no one is born with super power of remembering all type of information and making decision free of emotions.
The main problem with individuals and their decision making skills is that they have the urge to carry their entire history of the development with them. This information about development was helpful long ago but today in this modern world, this information is of no good. Today it is important to combine the behavioural patterns of the old times with the logical thinking.
Behavioural Finance has been able to derive the behavioural patterns that can be combined with the logical thinking. Today, an individual who knows and understands these Behavioral patterns is capable of knowing his abilities and improving them.OBSERVATIONS ON BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS:
Behavioural Finance has been part of some major research labs and since then there has been a lot of observations made.⦿ THE FEAR OF LOSE VS EXCITEMENT TO GAIN:
- The main reason investors put their hard earned money into something is to get profit out of it. However, they are well aware of the fact that profit is not the only thing they should expect. With every investment, the chances of meeting loss are equal as of profit but these two probabilities do not leave same impact on the investors.
- According to common observation of investors, the fear of losing their money is a lot bigger than the excitement to gain something. Moreover, it is hard for them to accept that they have made a bad investing decision. They cling to their decision and hope to get their money at the end of the day. In such cases, the investors usually end up losing everything for once and for all.
- The Investors have a great tendency to completely ignore all the bad investment news around them. Instead they believe in whatever they want to believe even if it means that putting their investments at stake.
- They sometimes use completely baseless information to support what they believe in. On the other hand, a successful investor does an in-depth analysis of the market before investing in anything.
- The investors are more inclined towards the term “Quantity over Quality”.
- Reading precise but intact information do not leave a lot of impact on them. They instead feel more motivated on reading detailed information. The length of the reports carried through the research plays in important role on their decision making.
- The presence of a lot of choices is one of the main reason that causes confusion for the investors to make a final decision. When an investor has a lot to choose from, his mind starts guessing another option.
- Options that have identical products or similar prices tend to confuse investors. In such scenario, instead of making a rational choice, they randomly choose one option that can turn out to be bad one in future.
- The investors have a great tendency of going with the flow. There are times when they purposely go with the flow, thinking that since the majority of the people are inclined towards it, it might be the right choice. This specific point of view of the investors can later lead them to big loss.
Behavioral finance and biasness:
For the investors, the entire decision making process is a war between their Brain and Emotions. There is a huge percentage of biasness involved in a decision made by most of the investors.
1. Confirmation Bias:
People happen to be more inclined towards whatever information they have in their mind. Their existing beliefs have a huge impact on what decisions they make for their investments. Any information that passes by them that supports their belief, immediately grab their attention. At times, they do not even confirm from other sources if their beliefs are right or based on some ground realities.
2. Mental Accounting:
People tend to view their hard earned money different from the inheriting money. Sometimes, the company that has previously brought a lot of profit to them has a special corner in their heart. They won’t stop investing in it even if it means going in loss. The need of staying loyal influences the decision making ability of lot of investors. Similarly, if they inherent stocks from their forefathers, they prefer to hold down to them, even if they are of no good now.
3. Illusion of Control:
Most of the investors make their decision under the illusion of control. For example, if a person went with his own theory and invested his money in some stocks that later brought him a lot of profit, will continue to believe that his theory is all he need in the stock market. The idea of having control over making decisions without taking help from any external information, leads to failure at times. There is no theory that proves that if a person was right at one thing, he will be right in everything else.
4. Hindsight Bias:
People usually like to make predictions. If one of their predictions comes true, they will stick to making more. The stock market is one of the most uncertain markets in the world. No one can ever be sure what is going to happen next. Making decision purely on the basis of the prediction is the key to bad decision making skills.
5. How to Be a Better Investor:
Behaviour oriented investments are a common thing and every once in a while everyone comes under its influence. To be a better investor, keep your emotions aside while you are making any investment.
6. Eliminate Emotions:
One of the biggest hurdles on the way to rational decision making is the involvement of the emotions. However, the key to success is to outsmart yourself and make better decisions that are free from any type of biasness of emotions. Do not let the sense of loyalty or inherence come in the way of your decision. Your decision should be based on the basis of market statistics.
7. Do Your Own Research:
To make a rational decision free of emotions and beliefs, one needs to get his hands on as much information as he can get. The key to find right and authentic information is by doing research. While you are thinking to invest your money in any company, do your research to have little peak in the outcome of the decision that you are making.
8. Narrow Down Your Options:
Seeing too many options can make an ordinary investor confused but what a wise investor can do is narrow down his options. On the basis of your research, narrow down the investment options that are available in front of you. Once you are done with this part, it will be a lot easier for you to make your final decision.
9. Step Out From The World of Illusion:
To be a better investor, you need to learn these two facts. No one knows everything and nobody has control over everything. If you choose to remain under the illusion of knowing everything, you will never be able to explore more and more about stock market investing.
10. Prepare Yourself For All Types Of Outcomes:
When an investor only plans for the success and forgets about the loss, this is when he steps out from the zone of the rational thinking. A good investor should prepare himself for the good as well as bad outcomes no matter what comes.
11. Go To An Old School Investment Strategies:
Ever heard the term “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket”? Well, this term completely fits the complex nature of the stock market. Being one of the most uncertain markets, it is never a wise thing to invest everything at one place. You might end up with do or die situation. To be a better investor, divide your investment in different places. The chances of getting maximum profit are usually high with investment diversification.